Union Membership

Recently during a Critical Family History workshop, someone asked me how to find out whether an immigrant ancestors had been a member of a labor union. This excellent question about union membership opens up consideration of various kinds of work records. This blog entry will address union membership, future entries will consider other forms of […]

Can Census Data Reveal Racism in Employment?

Recently I was asked whether opportunities were any better for European immigrants in the late 1800s than for freed African Americans in the North. The asker of the question assumed that after the Civil War, opportunities had evened out. I wanted to examine this question with data, and do so specifically with relationship to my own […]